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Integrated Circuits

Integrated circuits or microcircuits, microchips, and chips are a way to miniaturize circuits (mainly including semiconductor devices, but also passive components) in electronics, and are usually manufactured in On the surface of a semiconductor wafer.

Definitions and materials

An integrated circuit is a miniature electronic device or component. Adopt a certain process to interconnect transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and other components and wiring required in a circuit, make it on a small or several small semiconductor wafers or dielectric substrates, and then package them in a tube case , To become a miniature structure with the required circuit functions; all components have been integrated into a structure, making electronic components a big step towards miniaturization, low power consumption, intelligence and high reliability.


Functional structure
Integrated circuits, also known as ICs, can be divided into analog sets according to their functions and structures.
Into three major categories of circuits, digital integrated circuits and digital / analog hybrid integrated circuits.
Analog integrated circuits, also known as linear circuits, are used to generate, amplify, and process various analog signals (referring to signals whose amplitude varies with time. For example, audio signals of semiconductor radios, tape signals of recorders, etc.). The input signals and output signals are ratio. Digital integrated circuits are used to generate, amplify, and process various digital signals (referring to signals with discrete values ​​in time and amplitude. For example, 5G mobile phones, digital cameras, computer CPUs, digital TV logic control and playback audio signals And video signals).

Integrated circuits can be divided into semiconductor integrated circuits and film integrated circuits according to the manufacturing process.
Film integrated circuits are classified into thick film integrated circuits and thin film integrated circuits.

Integration level
Integrated circuits can be divided into:
SSIC Small Scale Integrated Circuit
MSIC Medium Scale Integrated Circuit
LSIC large-scale integrated circuit
GSIC huge-scale integrated circuits are also called very large-scale integrated circuits or ultra-large scale integrated circuits.

Different conductivity types
Integrated circuits can be divided into bipolar integrated circuits and unipolar integrated circuits according to the conductive type. They are both digital integrated circuits.
The manufacturing process of bipolar integrated circuits is complicated and the power consumption is large, which means that integrated circuits include TTL, ECL, HTL, LST-TL, STTL and other types. The unipolar integrated circuit has a simple manufacturing process and low power consumption, and is easy to be made into a large-scale integrated circuit. The representative integrated circuits include CMOS, NMOS, and PMOS.

By use
Integrated circuits can be divided into TV integrated circuits, audio integrated circuits, video disc integrated circuits, video recorder integrated circuits, computer (microcomputer) integrated circuits, electronic piano integrated circuits, communication integrated circuits, and camera integrated circuits. Circuits, remote control integrated circuits, language integrated circuits, integrated circuits for alarms, and various application-specific integrated circuits.
1. TV integrated circuits include line, field scan integrated circuits, mid-amp integrated circuits, sound integrated circuits, color decoding integrated circuits, AV / TV conversion integrated circuits, switching power supply integrated circuits, remote control integrated circuits, and Liyin decoding integrated circuits , Picture-in-picture processing integrated circuits, microprocessor (CPU) integrated circuits, memory integrated circuits, etc.
2. Audio integrated circuits include AM / FM high-IF circuit, stereo decoding circuit, audio preamplifier circuit, audio operational amplifier integrated circuit, audio power amplifier integrated circuit, surround sound processing integrated circuit, level driver integrated circuit, electronic volume Control integrated circuit, time delay reverberation integrated circuit, electronic switch integrated circuit, etc.
3. Integrated circuits for DVD players include system control integrated circuits, video encoding integrated circuits, MPEG decoding integrated circuits, audio signal processing integrated circuits, sound effects integrated circuits, RF signal processing integrated circuits, digital signal processing integrated circuits, servo integrated circuits, Motor drive integrated circuits, etc.
4. Integrated circuits for video recorders include system control integrated circuits, servo integrated circuits, drive integrated circuits, audio processing integrated circuits, and video processing integrated circuits.
5. Computer integrated circuit, including central control unit (CPU), internal memory, external memory, I / O control circuit, etc.
6. Communication IC
7. Professional Control IC

By application area
Integrated circuits can be divided into standard general-purpose integrated circuits and application-specific integrated circuits according to application fields.

Divided by shape
Integrated circuits can be divided into round (metal case transistor package type, generally suitable for high power), flat type (good stability, small size) and dual in-line type according to the shape.

Function and characteristics

The integrated circuit has the advantages of small size, light weight, fewer lead wires and solder joints, long life, high reliability, good performance, etc. At the same time, the cost is low, which is convenient for large-scale production. It is not only widely used in industrial and civilian electronic equipment such as radio cassette recorders, televisions, computers, etc., but also widely used in military, communications, remote control and other aspects. The use of integrated circuits to assemble electronic equipment can increase assembly density by several tens to thousands of times over transistors, and the stable working time of the equipment can be greatly improved.



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