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Due to its fast response time and high accuracy, transistors can be used for a variety of digital and analog functions, including amplification, switching, voltage regulation, signal modulation, and oscillators. Transistors can be packaged individually or in a very small area that can hold part of 100 million or more transistor integrated circuits

Definitions and materials

Transistors refer to all single elements based on semiconductor materials, including diodes (two terminals), transistors, field effect transistors, thyristors (three terminals are three terminals) made of various semiconductor materials. A transistor is sometimes referred to as a transistor.

A transistor is a solid-state semiconductor device (including diodes, triodes, field-effect transistors, thyristors, and sometimes bipolar devices in particular), and has a variety of functions such as detection, rectification, amplification, switching, voltage stabilization, and signal modulation. As a variable current switch, a transistor can control the output current based on the input voltage. Unlike ordinary mechanical switches (such as Relays and switches), transistors use electrical signals to control their opening and closing, so the switching speed can be very fast, and the switching speed in the laboratory can reach above 100GHz.


Semiconductor materials used by transistors can be divided into silicon material transistors and germanium material transistors. According to the polarity of the transistor, it can be divided into germanium NPN type transistor, germanium PNP transistor, silicon NPN type transistor and silicon PNP type transistor.

Transistors can be divided into diffusion type transistors, alloy type transistors, and planar type transistors according to their structure and manufacturing process.

Current capacity
Transistors can be divided into small power transistors, medium power transistors and high power transistors according to their current capacity.

working frequency
Transistors can be divided into low-frequency transistors, high-frequency transistors, and ultra-high-frequency transistors according to the operating frequency.

Package structure
According to the package structure, transistors can be divided into metal-encapsulated (gold-encapsulated) transistors, plastic-encapsulated (plastic-encapsulated) transistors, glass-encapsulated (glass-encapsulated) transistors, surface-mounted (chip) transistors, and ceramic-encapsulated transistors. Its package shape is various.

By function and use
Transistors can be divided into low noise amplifier transistors, medium and high frequency amplifier transistors, low frequency amplifier transistors, switching transistors, Darlington transistors, high back pressure transistors, band-stop transistors, band damping transistors, microwave transistors, phototransistors, and magnetic Various types of transistors.

Function and characteristics

Control high power
Current power transistors can control hundreds of kilowatts of power. There are many advantages to using power transistors as switches, mainly;
(1) It is easy to shut down and requires few auxiliary components.
(2) The switch is fast and can work at a very high frequency.
(3) Available devices withstand voltage range from 100V to 700V, everything.

(1) the increase of the effective chip area of ​​the switching transistor,
(2) technical simplification,
(3) the recombination of transistors-Darlington,
(4) Advances in base drive technology for high-power switches. ,
Transistor power switch working directly on rectified 380V mains
Transistor recombination (Darlington) and paralleling are both effective ways to increase the switching capability of a transistor.
In such a high-power circuit, the main problem is wiring. Very high switching speeds can produce quite high interference voltages on very short connection lines.
High performance from simple and optimized base drivers
Today’s base drive circuits not only drive power transistors, but also protect them. This is called “non-centralized protection” (as opposed to centralized protection). The functions of the integrated drive circuit include:
(1) Turn on and off the power switch;
(2) Monitor the auxiliary power voltage;
(3) Limit the maximum and minimum pulse widths;
(4) Thermal protection;
(5) Monitor the saturation voltage drop of the switch.



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