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Punching Machines

Stamping production is mainly for sheet metal. Through the mold, blanking, punching, forming, deep drawing, trimming, fine blanking, shaping, riveting and extrusion can be made, which are widely used in various fields.

Definitions and materials

The punch is a stamping press. In national production, the stamping process has the advantages of saving materials and energy compared with traditional machining, high efficiency, low technical requirements for operators, and the use of various mold applications to make products that cannot be achieved by machining, so It’s used more and more widely.

Stamping production is mainly for sheet metal. Through the mold, blanking, punching, forming, deep drawing, trimming, fine blanking, shaping, riveting and extrusion can be made, which are widely used in various fields. For example, we use switch sockets, cups, cupboards, saucers, computer cases, and even missile aircrafts … There are a lot of accessories that can be produced by punches using molds.


We divide according to driving force
The driving force of the slider can be divided into two types: mechanical and hydraulic. Therefore, the punching machine is divided into:
(1) Mechanical Power Press
(2) Hydraulic Press
For ordinary sheet metal stamping, most of them use mechanical punching machines. Hydraulic presses have different types of fluids, including hydraulic presses and hydraulic presses. Most of them use hydraulic presses, and hydraulic presses are mostly used for giant machines or special machines.

Classification by slider movement
There are single-action, double-action, and three-action punches according to the movement of the slider. Currently, the most commonly used is a single-action punch with a slider. The double-action and three-action punches are mainly used in the extension of automobile bodies and large-scale machining parts Processing, its quantity is very small.

Classification by slider drive mechanism
(1) Crank Press
A crank press that uses a crank mechanism is called a crank press. Figure 1 shows a crank press, most of which are mechanical punches.
Use this body. The most common reason for using a crankshaft mechanism is that it is easy to make, can accurately determine the end position under the stroke, and the slider movement curve is basically used in various processes. Therefore, this type of punching is practically used for punching, bending, stretching, hot forging, warm forging, cold forging, and almost all other punch processing.
(2) Crankless Press
Crankless presses are also called eccentric gear presses. Figure 2 shows eccentric gear presses. The function of the two structures of the crankshaft punch and the eccentric gear press is measured. As shown in Table 2, the shaft rigidity, lubrication, appearance, and maintenance of the eccentric gear punch are superior to the crankshaft structure, but the disadvantage is higher price. When the stroke is longer, the eccentric gear type punch is more favorable, and if the stroke of the special punching machine is short, the crankshaft punch is better. Therefore, the small machine and high-speed punching punch are also the fields of the crankshaft punch.
(3) Knuckle Press
Those who use the toggle mechanism on the slider drive are called toggle presses, as shown in Figure 3. This type of punch has a unique slider activity curve where the speed of the slider near the bottom dead point becomes extremely slow (as measured by the crankshaft punch), as shown in Figure 4. Moreover, the dead point position under the stroke is also correctly determined. Therefore, this punch is suitable for compression processing such as embossing and finishing, and is currently used most in cold forging.
(4) Friction Press
A press that uses friction transmission and a screw mechanism on a track drive is called a friction press. This kind of punch is most suitable for forging and crushing operations, and can also be used for bending, forming, stretching and other processing. It has a versatile function because it was inexpensive and was widely used before the war. Due to the inability to determine the end position under the stroke, poor machining accuracy, slow production speed, overload during control operation errors, and the use of skilled technology, they are gradually being eliminated.
(5) Screw Press
Those who use the screw mechanism on the slider driving mechanism are called screw punches (or screw punches).
(6) Rack press
A rack and pinion mechanism used on a slider drive mechanism is called a rack-type punch. Spiral presses have almost the same characteristics as rack-type punches, and their characteristics are almost the same as those of hydraulic presses. Formerly used for squeezing bushings, chips and other items, squeezing, squeezing, packing, and extruding shells (thinning process in hot rooms), etc., but today they have been replaced by hydraulic presses, unless extremely special Is no longer used.
(7) Link Press
Presses that use various link mechanisms on the slider drive mechanism are called link-type punches. The purpose of using the link mechanism is to keep the stretching speed within the limit during the extension process, while reducing the cycle of the process, and to reduce the change in the speed of the extension process to speed up the approach stroke from the top dead center to the processing start point and The speed of the return stroke from the bottom dead center to the top dead point makes it shorter than the crankshaft punch to improve productivity. This kind of punch has been used for the deep extension of cylindrical containers since ancient times, the bed surface is narrow, and it is used for the processing of automobile main panel, and the bed surface is wide.
(8) Cam Press
A cam press that uses a cam mechanism on the slider drive mechanism is called a cam punch. The characteristic of this kind of punch is the cam shape that is made properly so as to easily get the desired slider movement curve. However, due to the nature of the cam mechanism, it is difficult to convey a large force, so this punching capacity is very small. [2]

Function and characteristics

Punches are widely used in stamping and forming of electronics, communications, computers, household appliances, furniture, transportation, (automobiles, motorcycles, bicycles) hardware components and so on.
1. ⑴High rigidity and high precision frame, which is welded with steel plate and heat treated to eliminate the internal stress of the fuselage so that the equipment can work stably for a long time without deformation.
⑵ The load of the structure is even and the rigidity is balanced.
2. Stable high accuracy:
The main parts of the equipment, such as crankshaft, gear, transmission shaft and so on, are hardened and heat treated and have high wear resistance during grinding. The long-term performance is stable, ensuring the high precision and stability requirements.
3. Reliable and safe operation:
The reason why it is easy to operate and accurate is because it is different from the traditional brake, the clutch / brake combination device has high sensitivity, coupled with the dual electromagnetic control valve and overload protection device commonly used in international high-end equipment, It ensures the accuracy and safety of high-speed movement and stop of the slide of the press.
4. Production automation, labor saving and high efficiency.
The punch can be equipped with the corresponding automatic feeding device, with feeding error detection, pre-cutting and pre-breaking devices, which can fully realize automatic production, low cost and high efficiency.
5. Slider adjustment mechanism:
Quick adjustment is divided into manual adjustment and electric adjustment, which is convenient, reliable, safe and fast, and the accuracy can reach 0.1mm.
6. Novel design and environmental protection.
Adopting advanced technology and design concepts from Japan and Taiwan, it has the advantages of low noise, low energy consumption and no pollution.



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