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A lathe is a machine tool that uses a turning tool to turn a rotating workpiece. Drills, reamers, reamers, taps, dies and knurling tools can also be used on the lathe for corresponding processing.

Definitions and materials

A lathe is a machine tool that uses a turning tool to turn a rotating workpiece. Drills, reamers, reamers, taps, dies and knurling tools can also be used on the lathe for corresponding processing.


Ordinary lathe
It has a wide range of processing objects, a large adjustment range of the spindle speed and feed amount, and can process the internal and external surfaces, end faces, and internal and external threads of the workpiece. This lathe is mainly operated manually by the workers, which has low production efficiency and is suitable for single-piece, small-batch production and repair workshops.

Turrets and turning lathes
It has a turret tool holder or a return tool holder capable of holding multiple tools, which can be used by a worker to complete a variety of processes by using different tools in turn in one clamping of the workpiece, which is suitable for batch production.

Automatic lathe
According to a certain program, the multi-process processing of small and medium-sized workpieces can be automatically completed, and the material can be automatically loaded and unloaded, and a batch of the same workpiece can be repeatedly processed. It is suitable for large-scale and mass production.

Multi-tool semi-automatic lathe
There are single-axis, multi-axis, horizontal and vertical. The single-axis horizontal layout is similar to that of ordinary lathes, but the two sets of tool holders are installed at the front, back, or top of the spindle, respectively, for machining discs, rings, and shafts. The productivity is 3 to 5 times higher than that of ordinary lathes.

Copying lathe
It can imitate the shape and size of the prototype or the sample to automatically complete the processing cycle of the workpiece (see copying machine). It is suitable for small and batch production of more complex workpieces. The productivity is 10-15 times higher than that of ordinary lathes. There are multi-tool post, multi-axis, chuck, vertical and other types.

Vertical lathe
The main shaft is perpendicular to the horizontal plane, the workpiece is clamped on a horizontal rotary table, and the tool holder is moved on the beam or column. It is suitable for processing larger, heavier, and difficult to install workpieces on ordinary lathes. There are two types of single-column and double-column.

Tooth Lathe
While turning, the tool holder periodically reciprocates in a radial direction, and is used for forming tooth surfaces of forklift milling cutters, hobs, and the like. A small grinding wheel, usually with a shovel attachment, is used to grind the tooth surface.

Specialized lathes
Lathes that process specific surfaces of certain types of workpieces, such as crank lathes, camshaft lathes, wheel lathes, axle lathes, roll lathes, and ingot lathes.

Combined lathe
It is mainly used for turning processing, but it can also perform boring, milling, drilling, insertion, grinding and other processing after adding some special components and accessories. Repair work.

Saddle lathe
The left end of the saddle lathe at the headstock is sunken to accommodate large diameter parts. The shape of a lathe is high at two heads, low in the middle, and looks like a saddle, so it is called a saddle lathe. Saddle lathes are suitable for machining large radial dimensions and small axial dimensions. They are suitable for turning workpieces with outer circles, inner holes, end faces, grooving and metric, inch, modulus, warp threads, and drilling and boring , Reaming and other processes, especially suitable for single-piece, batch production enterprises. The saddle lathe can process larger diameter workpieces in the saddle groove. The guide rails of the machine tool are hardened and finely ground for easy and reliable operation. The lathe has the characteristics of high power, high speed, high rigidity, high precision, and low noise.

Function and characteristics

1. To ensure economy and reliability, the main drag motor generally uses a cage asynchronous motor. In order to meet the requirements of the speed range, mechanical speed change is generally used.
2. The start and stop of the spindle motor should be able to realize automatic control. Generally, small and medium-sized lathes use direct start. When the motor capacity is large, YY-delta step-down start is commonly used. In order to achieve rapid stop, mechanical or electrical braking is generally used.
3. For turning threads, the spindle must be able to rotate forward and backward. For small lathe spindles, the forward and reverse rotation of the main motor is realized by forward and reverse rotation of the main motor. When the capacity of the main drive motor is large, the normal and reverse rotation of the main spindle is usually achieved by electromagnetic friction clutch.
4. In order to cool the tools and workpieces during turning, a cooling pump should be provided. The cooling pump only needs to rotate in one direction and has a chain relationship with the spindle motor.
5. The control circuit should be provided with the necessary safety protection and safe and reliable local lighting.



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