Sculpture refers to the ornamental objects and monuments that have been carved for the purpose of beautifying the environment or used for commemorative purposes, with a certain allegorical, symbolic or pictographic shape. Sculpture is a kind of plastic art.
It is also called carving, which is a general term for the three creation methods of carving, carving and plastic. It refers to the use of various plastic materials (such as gypsum, resin, clay, etc.) or engravable and engravable hard materials (such as wood, stone, metal, jade block, agate, aluminum, fiberglass, sandstone, copper, etc.) A visible and tangible art image with a certain space, which reflects the social life, expresses the artist ’s aesthetic feelings, aesthetic emotions, and aesthetic ideals. Through carving and engraving, the sculptable material material is reduced, and plastic is achieved by adding plastic material materials to achieve artistic creation.
From the perspective of development, sculpture can be divided into traditional sculpture and modern sculpture. Traditional sculpture is a visible, touchable and static three-dimensional art form made of traditional materials; modern sculpture is made of new materials using anti-traditional four-dimensional, five-dimensional sculptures, sound and light sculptures made of sound, light and electricity. Sculpture, dynamic sculpture, etc.
According to the traditional materials, according to the environment and function, it can be divided into urban sculpture, garden sculpture, indoor sculpture, outdoor sculpture, desk sculpture, shelf sculpture and so on.
Due to the wide variety of materials used in sculpture, there are clay, stone, wood, metal, plaster, resin, and ivory. Then developed several categories:
Woodcarving: Woodcarving has a long history. Most of the early themes centered on religion. In addition to sculpting religious idols, it is also used for the decoration of altars and religious places. In countries where wooden architecture is flourishing, woodcarving develops along with architecture. Modern woodcarving has a very diverse style, and artists prefer to use abstract shapes to express it. In addition, woodcarving is also an important contributor to the invention of printing. For details, please see woodblock prints.
Stone carving: The area where stone carving develops has a lot to do with where the stone is suitable for carving. In areas where stone production is developed, stone carving has a long history. In the past, stone carvings were often used as garden decorations, door signs, or tomb building decorations, etc. Based on the heavy stone (not easy to be stolen), and the carving details are not easily damaged by wind and rain, stone carvings are mostly used outdoors Environment-oriented. A common stone carving material is marble.
According to their functions, sculpture can be roughly divided into five types: memorial sculpture, theme sculpture, decorative sculpture, functional sculpture and display sculpture.
The so-called commemorative sculpture is based on people or events in history or real life, and it can also be a permanent memorial of some common concept. Used to commemorate important people and major historical events. Generally, such sculptures are mostly outdoors, and some are indoors. Such outdoor sculptures are usually configured with a monument, or the sculpture itself has a monument awareness.
The theme sculpture is just as its name suggests. It is a description of the theme of a specific place, environment, and architecture. It must be organically combined with these environments, point out the theme, and even sublimate the theme, so that the audience clearly feels the characteristics of this environment. It can be meaningful in commemoration, education, beautification, and explanation. Thematic sculptures reveal the themes of urban architecture and the built environment.
Decorative sculpture is a relatively large type of urban sculpture. This type of sculpture is relatively easy and cheerful, and brings people enjoyment. It is specifically mentioned here as a category because it is becoming more and more important in people’s lives. Its main purpose is to beautify your living space. It can be as small as a living utensil and as large as a street sculpture. The expressed content is extremely wide and the expression forms are also colorful. It creates a comfortable and beautiful environment that can purify people’s hearts, cultivate their sentiments, and cultivate people’s pursuit of beautiful things. Most of the garden sketches we usually refer to are such sculptures.
Functional sculpture is a kind of practical sculpture. It is an art that combines art with the use of functions. This type of sculpture is also ubiquitous from your private space such as “lamp holder” to public space such as “playground”. While beautifying the environment, it also enriches our environment, inspires our thinking, and allows us to truly feel the beauty in the details of life. The primary purpose of functional sculptures is practical, such as trash cans in parks, large children’s play equipment, and so on.
Display sculptures, also known as shelf sculptures, are generally small in size. It is also divided into indoor and outdoor, but it takes sculpture as the main body to fully express the author’s own thoughts and feelings, style and personality, and even a test piece of some new theory or new idea. Its form technique is more dazzling, the content theme is more extensive, and the material application is more modern. But in any case, it provides creative space for talented artists and guarantees that sculpture, one of the most important art forms of humanity, will have a bright future.
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